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Professor must use the Software “R” to excavate a data set and answer questions from two topics (listed below) I have attached worksheet here as well .You need to choose two of the following sets of questions. You should identify which data will help you answer the questions you have chosen, and which tests might help you. Remember that we only have the four basic techniques available: the binomial test, the t and F-tests, the ?2 test (and/or Fisher’s Exact Test) and linear regression. You may have to ‘think outside the box’ a little to apply these tests to the particular problem/data. In many cases, a ‘real’ data analysis might use more sophisticated techniques to answer the questions more elegantly. Please read this section carefully as it provides the background story for the assignments. The migration-period inhumation cemetery of Allemenschen has been discovered by aerial photography in advance of a motorway project. There are 500 graves affected by the motorway project, occupying an area about 80m east-west by 12m north-south. The cemetery has been planned using a ‘strip and map’ approach and each grave has been given a unique ID number. The resources (time, money, and personnel) are available to excavate 10% of the cemetery. In this course you will select a sample of the site for excavation, then ‘excavate’ your chosen sample in R (the statistical package used for this course), analyse certain aspects of the data, and create a presentation about your findings. The data set you ‘excavated’ consists of the following information for each of the graves you have selected: Column 1: Grave number. This is just a label. Column 2: location of centre of grave (metres east of an arbitrary datum) Column 3: location of centre of grave (metres north of an arbitrary datum) Column 4: orientation of grave (in degrees clockwise from north, e.g., 90 is due east) Column 5: biological sex assigned to the skeleton by the osteologist (f = female, m = male) Columns 6 to 13: presence of various artefact types in the grave (y = yes, n = no) Column 14: One of five phases A–E assigned to the grave by the finds specialist, based on the artefact types present. Note that knives are the same in all phases and U means unphased. Topic 1: the chronological sequence of the cemetery Data: the locations of the graves (eastings and northings), and the phases (A to E) to which your finds specialist has assigned the grave goods. Archaeological question: what is the relationship between location and phase? Statistical questions: • what are the types of the data? • Are there differences in eastings and/or northings between the groups of graves assigned to phases A to E? • What exploratory techniques might shed light on this question? • What confirmatory techniques might support a conclusion? Statistical conclusion: the relationships between phase and easting and between phase and northing can be described as… Archaeological interpretation: what does the statistical conclusion tell you as an archaeologist? Topic 2: the topographical layout of the cemetery Data: the locations of the graves (eastings and northings), and orientations of the graves. Archaeological question: what is the relationship between location and orientation? Statistical questions: • what are the types of the data? • Does the orientation of graves vary as easting varies? Or as northing varies? • What exploratory techniques might shed light on this question? • What confirmatory techniques might support a conclusion? Statistical conclusion: the relationships between orientation and easting and between orientation and northing can be described as… Archaeological interpretation: what does the statistical conclusion tell you as an archaeologist? Can you spot a pattern in the way that the cemetery was laid out?

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