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Please, I need help responding to peers on discussion questions. i am sharing two different ones.
1) Hello Class,
Stem cells are known as the body’s raw material and are used to make all other cells with specialized function. Stem cells divide to form into daughter cells that eventually become differentiated cells with a specific function such as becoming a red blood cell, brain cell, bone cell, etc. (Mayo Clinic, 2022). Research into stem cells can help to increase understanding how diseases occur, generate healthy cells to replace cells affected by disease, and test new drugs for safety and effectiveness (Mayo Clinic, 2022). The controversy around embryonic stem cell research is that they must be obtained from early stage embryos which form when eggs are fertilized with sperm during in vitro fertilization. Since these are extracted from human embryos, there have been several questions that have arrived on the issue regarding ethics of the research. The ethics behind embryonic stem cell research are controversial because the criteria of “personhood” which is defined as the status of being a person entitled to moral rights and legal protection (Nwigwe, 2019). This issue leads to another which brings up the question of when does life begin? Some may say life starts at fertilization or some say at the beginning of organ function. Although stem cell research can treat many medical conditions and diseases, there are still a lot of risks that can come with it that scientists do not really know much about yet such as administration site reactions, failure of cells to work as expected, or growth of tumors (FDA, 2019). There are still a lot of unanswered questions about the use of stem cells for treatment and more research is still being done to perfect it but it has the potential to cure many medical conditions and diseases.
FDA. (2019, September 3). FDA warns about stem cell therapies. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved September 5, 2022, from https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/fda-warns-about-stem-cell-therapies
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2022, March 19). Answers to your questions about Stem Cell Research. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved September 5, 2022, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/bone-marrow-transplant/in-depth/stem-cells/art-20048117 (Links to an external site.)
Nwigwe, L. (2019, March 6). Embryonic Stem Cell Research: An ethical dilemma. Voices in Bioethics. Retrieved September 5, 2022, from https://journals.library.columbia.edu/index.php/bioethics/article/view/6135
Choose and describe a scientific technique or practice related to genetics and eugenics. Provide the rationale behind the use of this technique or practice.
One of the most inventive research methods that involve eugenics and human genetics is stem cell research. There are several types of stem cells such as adult (somatic) and embryonic. Embryonic stem cells can be used to help examine/treat diseases, while somatic stem cells cannot (Embryonic Stem Cell fact sheet. News., 1998, November 5). The rationale behind why this is used is because embryonic stem cells are not derived from an implanted egg then it is ethically acceptable, and this method is preferred due to embryonic stem cells’ ability to mutate into various types of cells.
Discuss your thoughts and ideas regarding the technique or practice. Is it ever justifiable? Why or why not?
I feel it is justifiable because not only does it help scientists research diseases, but it is also not derived from a fetus’ so there is no ethical dilemma regarding the use of embryonic stem cells. The embryos that are used are fertilized in a laboratory and are blastocytes which are no older than 6-8 days. The embryo has not been implanted therefore it is not developing into a fetus, which could potentially be carried to full term (cirm_2.0., 2019, November 19).
Embryonic Stem Cell fact sheet. News. (1998, November 5). Retrieved September 5, 2022, from https://news.wisc.edu/embryonic-stem-cell-fact-sheet/
cirm_2.0. (2019, November 19). Myths and misconceptions about stem cell research. California’s Stem Cell Agency. Retrieved September 5, 2022, from https://www.cirm.ca.gov/patients/myths-and-misconceptions-about-stem-cell-research#:~:text=No.%20Embryonic%20stem%20cells%20only%20come%20from%20four,lines%20destroy%20the%20embryo%3F%20In%20most%20cases%2C%20yes.