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Here is the information. The essay is on the book Midnight Robber and Speculative Fiction. Prompt from professor – Choose 1-3 real-life aspect(s) of Nalo Hopkinson’s The Midnight Robber (ex. artificial intelligence, personal data gathering/surveillance of citizens, space travel, sexual abuse/trauma/PTSD, colonization, Caribbean folklore, etc.) and research this topic via the LPC Library. Use the research you find and your own analysis of the novel to argue whether or not this novel and, by extension, science/speculative fiction are relevant to the real world today. I need to use the following sources that I have already turned in: Essay 3 Annotated Bibliography Conradt, Elisabeth, et al. “Child Development.” Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes, vol. 85, no. 6, 2014, pp. 2279–2298., https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12316. This article goes into depth on the outcomes of chronic stress in children. The authors claim that children who are exposed to a wide array of stressful variables in adolescence are more likely to develop psychopathology, delinquency, and difficulty functioning. Studies are showing that early forms of stress management lay the groundwork for how individuals will manage stress later in life. The authors conduct a study to measure cortisol levels in relation to neurobehavioral function. This journal seems to be fairly unbiased, and they take into account all of the variables. For instance: social status, caregiver’s disposition, CPS involvement, etc. They pulled a sample of children from the ages 1 month-16 years, which is perfect for Tan-Tan’s case. 77% of the sample are African American children, 16% are caucasian children, 6% are Hispanic children, and only 1% are from different cultural backgrounds. The sample size does not account for a very wide or even range of individuals from different ethnicities. The author’s attributed this to the states in which the samples were pulled from. This will help me shape my argument by giving me a better understanding of what is happening in Tan-Tan’s brain during the abuse and after the abuse. This also shows me how her high stress levels may lead her to act in the way that she does. This source has changed the way I think about my topic in that it gives me insight into what is actually happening in the brain. My other sources provided a lot of numerical evidence with less analysis, while this article has a fair balance of both. Currie, Janet M., and Edral Tekin. “The Journal of Human Resources.” Understanding the Cycle: Childhood Maltreatment and Future Crime, vol. 47, no. 2, 2012, pp. 509–549., https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1353/jhr.2012.0017. This paper focuses greatly on the correlation between childhood maltreatment and future crime. Though I am not focusing on crime as a result of sexual assault in my paper, I think that it is important to note: people who commit crimes do so because of an array psychological variables. Most of the reasons people commit crimes circle back to varying traumas and independent mental conditions, or conditions as a result of the trauma they’ve experienced. This journal sheds some insight into the abuser’s background. Did they abuse because of abuse or neglect they experienced as a child? This source does not seem to show any bias, and I think it is credible. The author’s went to lengths to express the potential limitations their data may display. Though Tan-Tan was not committing any crimes or enacting any criminal-like behavior, I think the highlighted information regarding the cycle of violence is pertinent to understanding why Tan-Tan behaved the way she did. The journal does not give much information regarding psychological disorders, like I’d hoped it would. That being said, it did open my eyes to another potential subtopic of my essay: the abuser. Without excusing or downplaying any of the trauma Antonio put on Tan-Tan, I would like to go back and find out if he talked about his childhood at all. I may be able to make a connection to further propel the idea of “the cycle of abuse.” This could subsequently help explain Tan-Tan’s actions. I wish this source gave me more information than it did, however, it opened my eyes to “the cycle of abuse.” Kochanska, Grazyna, et al. “Child Development.” Detailed Record Title: Guilt in Young Children: Development, Determinants, and Relations with a Broader System of Standards., vol. 73, no. 2, Mar. 2002, pp. 461–482., https://doi.org/https://doi-org.lpclibrary.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00418. The main premise of this publication is showing the relation between children feeling immense guilt and their behavioral dispositions. In this study 106 children were observed in a laboratory setting, where they have been led to believe that an object deemed valuable to them has been damaged. The fear in relation to the guilt these children experienced shows a direct correlation to the child’s tendency to violate rules. I believe that this source is credible and reliable, however, I am unsure how valuable it is for a few reasons. The first being: this study was conducted in 2002, which is 20 years ago. The information is still relevant, but science and research has progressed since then. Secondly, the ages of the subjects in which they observed. The study was conducted on children ages 22, 33, and 45 months. Tan-Tan was much older when her abuse took place. This also took place in a laboratory setting; meaning that they were not in a comfortable environment. The abuse that Tan-Tan endured happened in her own home. Though this source contains a multitude of potentially helpful information, I am unsure how useful it will be in progressing my argument. The biggest takeaway is the correlation between guilt and behavioral problems/rule breaking tendencies. Tan-Tan felt an immense burden of guilt following her abuse, and I think that is directly related to her disposition later on in the story. Initially, I was not focused on the role guilt may play in her psyche. Lewis, Terri, et al. “Does the Impact of Child Sexual Abuse Differ from Maltreated but Non-Sexually Abused Children? A Prospective Examination of the Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems.” Child Abuse & Neglect, vol. 51, Jan. 2016, pp. 31–40., https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.11.016. The purpose of this journal is to compare the lasting effects and behavioral problems of children who have suffered from sexual assault and those who have suffered from maltreatment, but not sexual assault. After analyzing both groups, studies have shown that children who have been sexually assaulted do have more internalized and externalized behavioral problems. This study also shows that the internalized issues in girls increase with age. These findings have proved that the consequences of child victims of sexual assault maintain consistently declining consequences. After analyzing this source, I have come to the conclusion that it is helpful in arguing my main point: the disrupted psychological growth of a child who has been sexually abused. Though I wish there was more analysis by the authors of this journal, rather than a large sum of numbers and graphs, it has given me data to prove my topic. I can tell that this source is reliable and unbiased because it gives data with a range of variables. For example, the study is done on both genders, varying ages, varying cultural backgrounds, and it studies both children who have been assaulted sexually and those who have been maltreated without sexual assault. This source helps shape my argument by giving some insight into Tan-Tan’s experiences and how they affect her behavior over time. It shows that other children who have gone through similar situations have stunted psychological growth, and this can explain some of her behavior as the narrative progresses. I can use this data to explain her actions following the abuse. I wouldn’t necessarily say that this journal has changed the way I view my topic, however, it has progressed my argument. Papalia, Nina, et al. “Child Sexual Abuse and Risk of Revictimization: Impact of Child Demographics, Sexual Abuse Characteristics, and Psychiatric Disorders.” Child Maltreatment, vol. 26, no. 1, 1 Feb. 2021, pp. 74–86., https://doi.org/https://doi-org.lpclibrary.idm.oclc.org/10.1177/1077559520932665. This source highlights abused children and their lives as adults, averaging until age 35. It shows how victims of childhood sexual assault have a higher rate of revictimization interpersonally and intrapersonally. Victimization later in life is one of the more consistent variables in these cases. This article focuses a lot on revictimization in regards to sexual and physical assault later in life, however, there are sentiments regarding the psychological and emotional damage that can follow. For example, individuals have proved to score higher on depression, anxiety, and anger scales following abuse. This is a useful source, however, I was unable to pull as much information as I would have liked to. This experiment takes place in Australia, not the US, which I was unaware of when I skimmed the article to select it. The study pulls from individuals independent of gender and age. The authors also cited the Victoria Police Law Enforcement Assistance Program database, which shows that their numbers are reliable. For the mental health aspect of their study, they were only able to pull psychiatric inpatient numbers from 1961-1990, which seems to be outdated. The authors also were grated an ethical approval for gaining access to this information and producing this study. The goal of this source is to analyze the data they accessed to prove the repercussions of childhood sexual assault. This source helps me shape my argument by giving me data. However, I am unsure how much of it I will use since they used old numbers. The discussion following the data proves to be helpful in explaining the psychological distress Tan-Tan could have been experiencing following the abuse by Antonio.

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